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Effect of Trabeculectomy on OCT Measurements of the Optic Nerve Head Neuroretinal Rim Tissue



  • In this cohort study of 16 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, the authors found that trabeculectomy resulted in significantly decreased intraocular pressure (average, 9.2 mmHg) and increased thickness of the minimum rim area and minimum rim width.
  • However, there was no significant change in the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness or visual field indices.

– Kathleen Freeman, OD, FAAO

This excellent study by Sanchez et al. demonstrates that a trabeculectomy for open-angle glaucoma results in an average intraocular pressure (IOP) decrease of 9.2 mm Hg from the preoperative IOP. Postoperatively, optical coherence tomography (OCT) reveals less deformation of the optic nerve head rim (or less cupping) and the number of medications decrease from 2.1 to 0.5.

Sanchez et al. noted: "Our findings similarly show that MWR [minimum rim width] and MRA [minimum rim area] may be more mechanically susceptible to reversal of deformation of ONH [optic nerve head] connective tissues (secondary to relief of compressive and stretch forces on the neuroretinal rim tissue) that have little influence on the peripapillary RNFL [retinal nerve fiber] at a distance from the ONH.”

There were a few limitations of this superb study. One is that the mean duration of the trabeculectomy was only 8.6 months. The authors noted that visual field (VF) testing did not reveal an improvement in the VF, but indicated that a longer follow-up may have yielded significant VF changes. Sanchez et al. also acknowledged that their study was underpowered to perform sub-analyses to determine the magnitude of IOP reduction on ONH parameters.

This accomplished paper demonstrates why trabeculectomy remains the gold standard when managing open-angle glaucoma. Further work needs to be done to determine if similar improvements of the ONH can be accomplished by either topical medications or minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS).

AAO 2019: Topical Treatments for Presbyopia on the Horizon

Link  “The landscape is changing for the medical treatment of presbyopia,” concluded Dr. Rowen. “Pupillary miotics will be the first to market. They appear safe, effective, and easy to use in early studies. We will learn which patient population will adopt the best. Many people will be able to work without glasses, [but] we will need to study the tolerability for long-term use. The lens-softening drops are hopefully now approaching the phase II studies.”

Top 7 Benefits of Magnesium


Today’s blog is republished from my friends at TheAlternativeDaily, a leading publisher of daily alternative health tips that I personally read every day…The original article can be found here:

Magnesium is intimately involved in over 600 reactions in the body including the metabolism of food, the transmission of nerve impulses, the synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, muscle movements, gene maintenance and protein formation.

It is one of seven essential macrominerals that must be consumed daily in large amounts — 100 milligrams or more. We store about 25 grams of magnesium in our body with more than 50 percent of this being stored in the skeletal system. The rest goes in the muscles, soft tissues and bodily fluids.

Unfortunately, studies note that about 50 percent of the people in the United States and Europe get far less than the recommended amount of magnesium. It is important to know that magnesium levels in soil are lower than they used to be. Plus, the use of chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine in water make magnesium less available. In addition, daily use of sugar and caffeine also deplete magnesium supplies within the body. In addition, if you live a high-stress life, it is likely that you are magnesium deficient.

magnesium deficiency can lead to a range of chronic health issues. Just to name a few: calcium deficiency, poor heart health, weakness, anxiety and high blood pressure. You can also add type 2 diabetes, respiratory issues, fatigue, poor memory and confusion to the list.

Health benefits of magnesium

Here is just a sneak peek at some of the amazing benefits of this tiny macromineral and why it is so important to be sure you are getting enough of it.

Blood Sugar Balance

Magnesium helps manage insulin levels in the body and can prevent blood sugar spikes and crashes from occurring. It also plays a large role in blood pressure control, preventing high blood pressure from occurring, especially when combined with enough potassium in the diet. This does two things: controls stress that can elevate insulin levels and improves overall blood pressure that, when out of control, increases insulin resistance and can cause type 2 diabetes to occur more easily.


Magnesium is essential for proper brain function and mood regulation. Research indicates that without enough magnesium, you are more prone to depression. According to the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance, major depressive disorder impacts 14.8 million American adults.

In one study of over 8,00 people, researchers found that those 65 years old and under with the lowest intake of magnesium had a 22 percent increased risk of developing depression.

In a randomized controlled trial including older adults suffering from depression, a 450-milligram magnesium supplement improved mood just as effectively as an antidepressant drug.


No one likes being anxious. If you find you are frequently in this state, you may want to try increasing your magnesium. Low magnesium levels have been attributed to an increase in anxiety. According to research, a diet low in magnesium changes the types of bacteria present in the gut and alters anxiety-based behavior.

Heart Health

Studies indicate that even having a slightly reduced level of magnesium can cause severe changes in how the heart, blood vessels, blood cells and other tissues function. Magnesium is critical for proper electrical and mechanical functioning within tissues such as nerves and muscles (such as the heart), and blood vessels.


Research has shown that low brain magnesium is evident during a migraine attack. One study found that a regular intake of magnesium reduced the frequency of migraine attacks by just over 41 percent. Another study found that taking a magnesium supplement daily can help prevent menstrual-related migraines.


According to Dr. Carolyn Dean, a magnesium expert and Medical Advisory Board member of the Nutritional Magnesium Association, magnesium could be the answer to a host of premenstrual symptoms. These include such things as mood swings, fluid retention, depression, breast tenderness, headaches, poor sleep and sugar cravings.

Brain Power

Research has shown that mice given extra magnesium had better working memory, long-term memory and a greater ability to learn. According to head researcher Dr. Liu, “Magnesium is essential for the proper functioning of many tissues in the body, including the brain and, in an earlier study, we demonstrated that magnesium promoted synaptic plasticity in cultured brain cells.”

Signs of magnesium deficiency

Here are just a few signs that you may be magnesium deficient:

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Muscle cramps
  • High blood pressure
  • Hormone problems
  • Sleep issues
  • Low energy
  • Low vitamin D
  • Low vitamin K

Good sources of magnesium

Magnesium-rich foods are found abundantly in nature. Try these delicious options:


Spinach is rich in many key nutrients for your health, including magnesium, protein, vitamin E and B vitamins. Raw spinach only has about 78 milligrams of magnesium per cup, but one cup of cooked spinach contains over 760 milligrams! That’s twice the amount from kale and collards, with only Swiss chard beating spinach as the top source from leafy greens.


Pumpkin, sunflower, sesame, chia, hemp and flax seeds are all great sources of magnesium. Seeds are also rich in anti-inflammatory fats and high in protein. Try sprinkling a couple tablespoons of seeds onto salads, add them to a green smoothie, or toss a few in with some berries and organic Greek yogurt for a high protein, magnesium-rich breakfast or snack.

Cocoa and cacao

Raw nibs and cacao powder are incredibly high sources of magnesium, along with dark chocolate and even cocoa powder. While you shouldn’t rely on chocolate alone for your magnesium intake, having a small square of dark or raw chocolate (or a couple tablespoons of cocoa) is certainly an enjoyable way to add more magnesium to your day!


Almonds are high in protein, vitamin E and the highest source of magnesium among all nuts, with cashews being a close second. Almonds contain roughly 76 milligrams per ounce (about 23 nuts), or 15 percent of your daily needs. For the best anti-inflammatory option, choose raw almonds (unroasted) or raw almond butter.


Bananas are often avoided for their high sugar content, but this fruit is actually the best source of magnesium among all common fruits. Bananas are also a great source of vitamin C, potassium, fiber, vitamin B6 and manganese. A medium-sized banana contains 32 milligrams of magnesium.


Your morning cup of java just got a bit more exciting — coffee is the highest source of liquid magnesium you can consume! It’s also higher than any food source — just in case you were wondering. Espresso has a higher magnesium content, but all coffee comes in around 1000 milligrams or more in just one eight-ounce cup. Do keep in mind that calcium from milk and refined sugar can interfere with magnesium absorption, so drink your coffee black. Also use a raw, whole-food sweetener like honey instead of sugar.

Ketogenic Diet

The World's Shortest IQ Test Is Only Three Questions


aking an IQ test doesn't have to be akin to drilling through the marathon of questions that is the SAT. (Please don't make us go through that again. Please.) In fact, what has been hailed as the world's shortest IQ test in the world is a whole three questions. Yup, you can take it right now and start bragging to your friends within 30 minutes.


Trick Question


The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) was developed by psychologist Shane Frederick in 2005. In a paper published in The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Frederick explains that he picked the three questions for the CRT because they were all "found to yield impulsive erroneous responses." That is, the questions make it easy for people to quickly jump to conclusions, instead of closely analyzing the seemingly simple quiz items. 

This kind of mental trickery is how so few people can nail each of the three questions. Beginning in January 2003, the CRT was administered to 3,428 respondents in 35 separate studies over a 26-month period. During that experiment, only 17 percent of students from the top universities in the world (like Yale and Harvard) got a perfect score on the CRT questions. Based on the results of this 26-month experiment, Frederick introduced the complete CRT to the world in 2005. This short test was designed to test someone's ability to ignore their gut response and think more rationally. Scroll down to try out the questions, and keep scrolling to check your answers.  


Here Are the Questions


1. The Bat and Ball Problem

A bat and a ball together cost $1.10. The bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?

2. The Widget-Making Machine Problem

If it takes five machines 5 minutes to make five widgets, how long would it take 100 machines to make 100 widgets?

3. The Size-Double Lily Pad Patch Problem

There is a patch of lily pads in a lake. Every day, the patch doubles in size. If it takes 48 days for the patch to cover the entire lake, how long would it take for the patch to cover half the lake?

Scroll down to read the answers to the questions in the CRT.

Here Are the Answers


1. The ball costs 5 cents. You probably guessed 10 cents, didn't you? No judgment. A ball that costs 5 cents plus a bat that costs $1.05 will set you back $1.10. And $1.05 is exactly $1 more expensive than 5 cents. A Princeton study found that people who answered 10 cents were significantly less patient than those who got it correct.

2. It would take 100 machines 5 minutes to make 100 widgets. Your gut might tell you the answer is 100 minutes. From the question, we know that it takes 5 minutes for one machine to make one widget. Thus, it would take 5 minutes for 100 machines to make 100 widgets. (Check out a similar, if not more difficult problem, here.)

3. The lily pads would cover half the lake in 47 days. You might have guessed 24 days. It seems intuitive to halve the number of days because you're halving the size of the lilypad patch. But if the area of the lake covered in lilypads doubles every day, it would only take one day for it to go from being half covered to fully covered. Take one day away from 48 days and you're left with 47. (We have a similar problem here, too.)

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If you feel like challenging yourself to more IQ tests, check out "Ultimate IQ Tests: 1000 Practice Test Questions to Boost Your Brain Power (Ultimate Series)" by Philip Carter and Ken Russell. We handpick reading recommendations we think you may like. If you choose to make a purchase, Curiosity will get a share of the sale.

Novel herpes zoster vaccine is more cost effective than old vaccine


View on the News




The novel herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) is more effective and less expensive than the currently used live attenuated virus (ZVL), according to a study from the Center for Value-Based Research.

Phuc Le, PhD, of the Cleveland Clinic and her colleague Michael Rothberg, MD, conducted an economic analysis of vaccine strategies from the societal perspective. This included the direct medical costs and productivity losses associated with HZ disease and complications.

shingles: Confluent groups of vesicles in a highly inflamed case.Elsevier 2004. Habif: Clinical Dermatology 4E
The HZ/su vaccine information was derived from two different randomized clinical trials. In the first trial, HZ/su demonstrated a 97% efficacy rate for all age groups in a randomized clinical trial. In the second HZ/su vaccine trial, a similarly high efficacy rate was observed, around 90%.

The one-, two-, and three-way sensitivity analyses examined how different variables affected the cost-effectiveness of different vaccine strategies. The one-way analysis examined the association of input variables and cost-effectiveness. This included HZ/su prices, waning rate and initial efficacy of a dose of HZ/su, and the adherence rate. This analysis revealed that, compared with no vaccination, HZ/su would provide cost savings up to a price of $160, or $80 per dose.

5 home remedies to lower your blood pressure


If an individual eats loads of sugars and grains, insulin receptors get wonky and shut down, which means platelets can never again assimilate magnesium, one of the mind’s most significant wellsprings of stress help. Distressing circumstances can cause your circulatory strain to spike, if just incidentally, and long haul pressure can prompt long haul hypertension issues.

On the off chance that you end up stuck in the hamster wheel of pressure and hypertension, there’s bounty you can do to facilitate the weight, actually. What’s more, it needn’t take long. Our bodies have an exceptional capacity to recuperate themselves. Great well-being is a long lasting speculation, yet a touch of cherishing care can improve circulatory strain momentarily.

1. Omega oil


There are a lot of foods including certain kinds of fish with ample omega-3 which will lower blood pressure and keep it in control. On the other hand, it is also essential that you stop consuming refined vegetable oils to stay away from increased blood pressure levels.


2. Stop consuming aerated drinks


Aerated drinks and soda contain huge amounts of sugar content which is deadly to the heart and your blood sugar. While you avoid consuming white sugar, you are still prone to high blood pressure if you are a regular drinker of soft drinks. So, if you’ve been diagnosed with increased blood pressure, it’s time you quit these carbonated drinks and switch to something more natural.


3. Lemon


Being a citrus fruit rich in Vitamin C, lemon juice has the ability to reduce hypertension, thus, reducing your blood pressure. Make it a point not to add white sugar to the juice to cherish the complete health benefits of this wonder fruit. You can also drink one glass of unsweetened lemon juice every morning to keep cholesterol at bay.


4. Garlic


Garlic has innumerous goodness and one of them is to cut down blood pressure. Studies have found that blood pressure patients who consumed garlic on a daily basis noticed a major difference in their pressure levels.


5. Berries


You would have heard about berries being major anti-oxidants. But, did you know that these nutrient-rich fruits can also reduce your blood pressure? Yes, try including strawberries, blueberries, and other berry variety in your daily foods to maintain a healthy regime.


Keeping your blood pressure in control depends a lot on your food and life style rather than external factors. Yoga and meditation can also help you deal with stress and hypertension.

Six amazing foods to eat at night


Eating great food is significant for your health.
It will diminish your danger of building up certain illness; it also keeps your brain and health work properly.
Every human being needs to get enough sleep it should cover a range of 7 and 9 hours of continuous rest every night.
There are numerous methods you can use to advance great rest, including making changes to your eating routine, as certain food have rest advancing properties.

Here are the 9 amazing foods you can eat before bed to upgrade your rest quality.



It has been declared that almonds improve the sleep quality swiftly.
Almonds have a few different sorts of nuts that will regulate the sleep melatonin.
Almonds have magnesium, giving 19% of your day by day needs in just 1 ounce. Eating magnesium may help improve sleeping quality, particularly for the individuals who have insomnia.


Fatty Fish


Salmon, tuna, trout, and mackerel, are considered as fatty fish list these are amazing which it comes about health.
Eating a couple of ounces of fatty fish before bed may enable you to nod off quicker and rest all the more profoundly.
Fatty fish are an incredible wellspring of nutrient D and omega-3 unsaturated fats, the two of which have properties that may improve the nature of your rest.


Chamomile Tea


Chamomile tea is a famous herbal tea that provides many health benefits.
It helps to reduce inflammation that often leads to chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease.
Chamomile tea has antioxidants that provide tiredness and drinking it will help to improve your sleep quality.




Kiwi is a small fruit, full of flavor and an amazing source of nutrition.
Kiwis are wealthy in serotonin and cell reinforcements, the two of which may improve sleeping quality when you consume before go to bed.
Walnuts are the famous tree nut.
Walnuts may likewise support heart wellbeing. They have been known for their capacity to diminish cholesterol levels, which is a danger factor for heart disease.
Also, eating walnuts is to improve sleep quality, as they are extraordinary which produces the sleep-regulating hormone melatonin.


White Rice

White rice is a grain that is broadly devoured as staple nourishment in numerous nations.

The significant contrast among white and brown colored rice is that white rice has had its grain and germ expelled, which makes it lower in fiber, supplements and cell reinforcements.
White rice might be gainful to eat before bed because of its high glycemic record, which improves to get better rest.


Why you should eat Cucumber everyday

18 Unique and Healthy Vegetables


Commonly consumed vegetables, such as spinach, lettuce, peppers, carrots, and cabbage, provide abundant nutrients and flavors. It’s no wonder that they’re among the most popular varieties worldwide.

While these veggies are very healthy, relying on them heavily may prevent you from trying less familiar choices.

In fact, research shows that increasing the variety of vegetables in your diet may help reduce your risk of heart disease — and even improve your overall quality of life (1Trusted Source2Trusted Source3Trusted Source).

Incredibly, thousands of different vegetables grow all over the world, some of which may be available where you live.

Here are 18 unique vegetables that can make a healthy and exciting addition to your diet.





Daikon radishes


Daikon is a winter radish often used in Asian dishes. With a crunchy texture and mild, peppery flavor, it resembles a large, white carrot with a leafy top.

It’s very low in calories, offering just 25 per cooked cup (147 grams). It’s also packed with many nutrients, including vitamin C, copper, potassium, and folate (4).

What’s more, daikon contains high amounts of powerful plant compounds, such as glucosinolates, which act as antioxidants and may have anticancer properties (5Trusted Source6Trusted Source). 


Taro is a root vegetable that’s a popular carb source in Africa and Asia. When cooked, it has a subtly sweet taste and soft texture, making it an excellent stand-in for potatoes, sweet potatoes, and starchy vegetables.

It’s also an excellent source of fiber, vitamin E, B vitamins, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese (7).

Taro is especially beneficial for digestive health due to its impressive fiber content.

Studies show that its fiber acts as a prebiotic, stimulating the growth of friendly gut bacteria that boost immune health and protect against bowel diseases, among other benefits (8Trusted Source9Trusted Source).  


Delicata squash is a type of summer squash — though harvested during winter — with an oblong shape and creamy color marked by vertical stripes.

Unlike other squashes, such as butternut or pumpkin, delicatas have thin, tender skin and can be eaten without peeling the outer rind. Delicata has a sweet, pumpkin-like flavor that pairs well with many foods.

It’s also low in calories and carbs, making it an excellent lower-carb alternative to starchy vegetables like potatoes and sweet potatoes (10).   









Sunchokes Jerusalem artichokes




The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)is a type of sunflower grown for its edible tubers, which are commonly known as sunchokes. This starchy vegetable looks like ginger root. When cooked, it’s tender and tastes slightly nutty. A good source of many nutrients, Jerusalem artichokes are especially high in iron, which is essential for red blood cell production, and inulin, a type of fiber that may promote digestive health and blood sugar control (1112Trusted Source).  


Chayote belongs to the same family as pumpkins and zucchini.

This bright green, wrinkled squash has tender, edible skin and white, mild flesh that’s typically cooked but can also be eaten raw.

Although low in calories, it’s packed with vitamins and minerals. One cup (132 grams) of raw chayote contains just 25 calories, yet delivers over 30% of the daily value (DV) for folate, a B vitamin involved in DNA synthesis and cellular function (13).  


All parts of the dandelion plant (Taraxacum officinale)are edible, including the leaves, which are known as dandelion greens.

Though not as popular as other leafy greens, they’re loaded with an array of vitamins, minerals, and potent plant compounds, including vitamin K, iron, and polyphenol antioxidants (14).

Many test-tube and animal studies suggest that dandelion greens may lower blood sugar and cholesterol and help prevent cellular damage (15Trusted Source).

What’s more, they can be enjoyed raw or cooked and make a great substitute for other greens like spinach or lettuce.  







Fiddlehead fern


Fiddleheads are the flavorful leaves of young ferns that have not yet unfolded. Popular among foragers, they’re harvested from immature ferns and have a tightly wound, curled shape. Fiddleheads are rich in nutrients and plant compounds, such as provitamin A, vitamin C, and manganese (16).  Their carotenoid plant pigments include lutein and beta carotene, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and may protect against various conditions like certain cancers and eye diseases (1718Trusted Source).nmFiddleheads are easily incorporated into stir-fries, soups, and pastas.  


Jicama is the edible root of the Pachyrhizus erosus vine. Turnip-like in shape, it has white, mildly sweet flesh.

This tuberous vegetable is loaded with vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin that’s important for immune health and acts as an antioxidant (19).

Jicama is also packed with fiber, including inulin, a prebiotic that’s good for your gut health (20Trusted Source).  


Cassava, also known as yuca, is a root vegetable that looks like a sweet potato but has a milder, nuttier taste.

Often mashed, fried, or roasted, it must be cooked to reduce its levels of cyanogenic glycosides, which may impair thyroid function (21).

Cassava is a good source of vitamin C, several B vitamins, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and copper. It’s also drought-resistant, making it a staple food for people in developing countries (2223Trusted Source).   


Celeriac is a peculiar root vegetable that’s closely related to celery and parsley.

It has a celery-like taste that makes an excellent low-carb substitute for potatoes in soups and stews, though it can also be enjoyed raw.

Celeriac is likewise a great source of phosphorus, potassium, and vitamins C and K (24).  


Rutabagas, also called swedes, snaggers, or neeps, are a cruciferous vegetable in the same family as kale, cauliflower, and cabbage.

They’re believed to be a cross between a turnip and a cabbage and closely resemble turnips in appearance. However, they have rougher skin and a milder flavor.

Rutabagas are low in calories but rich in nutrients like fiber, vitamin C, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, and magnesium, making them a nutrient-dense veggie that can be enjoyed raw or cooked (25).  





RomanescoShare on Pinterest




Romanesco is an eye-catching vegetable with an intricate, spiral-like shape and bright green color. What’s more, it offers several powerful plant compounds.




Research shows that brassica vegetables — which include romanesco, broccoli, and cabbage — are rich in polyphenol antioxidants and other plant compounds that have potential anticancer and immune-boosting effects (26Trusted Source).




For example, a diet rich in brassicas may safeguard against colon, lung, and breast cancer. However, food should never be considered a treatment for this disease (27Trusted Source28Trusted Source29Trusted Source).  


Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a gourd grown worldwide and prized for its powerful medicinal properties.

Many varieties exist, though all have a bitter taste. They’re often used in dishes like soups, curries, and stir-fries.

The vegetable has long been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, such as diabetes, pneumonia, kidney disease, and psoriasis (30Trusted Source).

Test-tube and animal research demonstrates that bitter melon has anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-diabetes effects due to its abundance of plant compounds (30Trusted Source).  


Purslane is an edible weed that grows naturally in fields and lawns. Technically a succulent, it has glossy leaves and a lemony flavor.

Purslane is very low in calories, delivering just 9 per 1-cup (43-gram) serving. At the same time, it boasts an impressive amount of potassium, magnesium, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-based omega-3 fat (31Trusted Source).

It’s also rich in potent antioxidants, including vitamin C, beta carotene, glutathione, and alpha tocopherol, which help prevent cellular damage and protect against chronic diseases (31Trusted Source32Trusted Source).  


Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum)Share on Pinterest  

Mashua is a flowering plant native to South America that produces an edible tuber with a pungent, peppery flavor.  The tubers come in various colors — including yellow, red, and purple — and have been shown to provide antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects in animal and test-tube studies (33Trusted Source). However, according to research in rodents, mashua may harm testicular function. As such, it should be eaten in moderation (34Trusted Source).  Mashua is often cooked but can also be served raw.  


Popular in Mexican cuisine, tomatillos are members of the nightshade family, which includes tomatoes and eggplants.

Tomatillos resemble tomatoes and are covered in a papery husk that’s removed before eating.

When ripe, they take on a green, purple, or red hue, depending on the variety. Tomatillos can be picked at different points of ripening, offering a tart taste when young and sweeter flavor when mature.

Plus, they’re nutrient-dense and low in calories, with a 1-cup (132-gram) serving providing only 42 calories, yet over 17% of your daily vitamin C needs (35).  


Ramps are a type of wild onion that’s native to North America and closely related to garlic and shallots. Their strong, garlicky aroma and rich flavor make them popular among chefs and foragers alike (36Trusted Source).

Ramps are a concentrated source of vitamin C, which enhances iron absorption and safeguards against cellular damage and infections (3738Trusted Source).

What’s more, research suggests that allium vegetables like ramps may help reduce your risk of chronic conditions like cancer and heart disease (39Trusted Source40Trusted Source41Trusted Source). 


Salsify is a root vegetable that resembles a long carrot. It comes in white and black varieties, each with a distinct flavor and appearance.

Black salsify has dark skin and is often called “vegetable oyster” due to its mild oyster-like flavor. On the other hand, the white variety has tan skin and is said to taste like artichoke hearts.

Both types make excellent substitutes for other root vegetables like potatoes and carrots and are high in many nutrients, including vitamin C, several B vitamins, and potassium (42).

Plus, salsify may promote feelings of fullness and reduce cholesterol levels due to its high fiber content (43Trusted Source44Trusted Source).  


Daikon, bitter melon, romanesco, and purslane are just a few of the thousands of uncommon but highly nutritious vegetables grown around the world.

Adding some of these veggies to your diet will not only expand your palate and add flavor to your dishes but also potentially boost your overall health.

Don’t be afraid to try these unique vegetables if you spot them at farmers markets or your local grocery store.




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