Edwin Y. Endo, OD Optometrists, Associates & Interns

We are the leading Provider in Eye Care and highly regarded professional Optometry establishment in honolulu for the entire family where Quality eye exams are Affordable with Excellence. Diplomate,  Board Certified Optometrists, Eye Doctor near you

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Yes, Blue-Eyed Humans Have a Single Common Ancestor

If you’ve heard the rumor, it’s true, even if hard to believe.

It’s hard to imagine millions of people all being related. When it comes to blue-eyed people however, and perhaps other groups if not all of humanity, this seems to be the case.

Research done at the University of Copenhagen indicates that people with blue eyes do indeed have a single common ancestor. It all dates back to a genetic mutation that took place 6,000 to 10,000 years ago.

“Originally, we all had brown eyes,” said Professor Hans Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. “But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a “switch”, which literally “turned off” the ability to produce brown eyes.”

Related: These Foods do Weird Things to Your Body

The OCA2 gene codes regulate the color of your hair, eyes and skin. If the mutation hadn’t been as specific as it was, researchers say, it would have resulted in albinism, or being albino.

So, are blue eyes advantageous? Not necessarily. The mutation is neither positive nor negative, scientists point out. If you like blue and have the eyes, you’re simply in luck. (And if you don’t, it seems like you’re not).

Professor Eiberg says, “it (the mutation) simply shows that nature is constantly shuffling the human genome.”

Other mutations in the human gene code have led to varying hair colors, baldness, freckles, beauty spots and a lot more.

For more on the science of genetic mutations, click here.

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What Does Your Blood Type Say About Your Health?

What Does Your Blood Type Say About Your Health?

Your blood type could tell you if you’re more likely to develop heart disease, memory problems and more.

Blood types are pretty interesting. On the surface it’s all just a whack of O’s, A’s and B’s, but if you delve a little deeper science has a more intricate story to tell.

Take some recent news, for example. A new study done by scientists in the Netherlands has turned up some interesting info. When looking at the health of a large group of people, it was found that individuals who have type A, B or AB blood all have a slightly higher chance of having a heart attack or stroke.

The research was presented at the European Society of Cardiology congress and involved studying the health of a whopping 1.3 million people.

There are benefits and drawbacks to every blood type.

It’s true that the differences were small- non-O blood types are only very slightly more likely to suffer from a heart or stroke- but scientists pointed out that when magnified, the numbers count.

When the findings were applied to large populations- say, the whole world for example- the numbers became significant.

Related: How to Live to 150 on $8000 Young Blood

What other nuggets of truth does your blood hold? Scientists don’t know everything out there yet, but here are some interesting points on each group.

1) Os

There are benefits and drawbacks to every blood type.

O blood types are the universal donor. That means that people with type O blood can donate their blood to anyone, and they can use it successfully.

It reportedly takes more to stress out someone with an O blood type, but there’s a catch. Once they are riled up, an O type isn’t going to calm down anytime soon.

It’s said to be harder for O blood types to clear stress hormones from their system.

So, is yoga in order? No, apparently not. Calm relaxation is best left to the A and B blood groups. Type Os need some a vigorous run around the block and a strongman competition to get them back to ‘normal’.

3) As

There are benefits and drawbacks to every blood type.

People with blood type A can donate to others with A or AB blood. What are the risks and benefits for this group? A study found that As, Bs and ABs are at a greater risk of developing pancreatic cancer than people with type O blood.

Type As are also more likely to have higher levels of stress hormones in their body and to be floating around feeling anxious. They do respond well to calming exercises like yoga or tai-chi, though, and experts recommend they take it up.

4) Bs

There are benefits and drawbacks to every blood type.

Type Bs are a bit like As when it comes to dealing with stress, although they can tolerate it a bit more. Still, yoga and other non-aerobic forms of exercise are a gift for this type, when trying to stay in balance.

As for illnesses, these guys are pretty balanced. At the moment, thankfully not many studies point to disaster!

5) ABs

Oh, these poor souls–ABs get a tough ride in life. People with an AB blood type are few and far between on our planet and consequently, blood banks are often in short supply of AB blood.

Another pitfall awaiting this group is the fact that they have a far higher chance of developing heart disease than other groups.

Related: Creepy or Amazing? Science Can Now Mass Produce Blood for Donation

ABs are also more likely than other types to experience memory problems, language difficulties and attention problems.

What are the benefits of being an AB? You are a universal recipient and can receive plasma from people with all types of blood.

(photo credits:

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The Accurate Story Behind the Star Spangled Banner

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Link Glaucoma


What Is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is an eye disease that can damage your optic nerve. The optic nerve supplies visual information to your brain from your eyes.

Glaucoma is usually, but not always, the result of abnormally high pressure inside your eye. Over time, the increased pressure can erode your optic nerve tissue, which may lead to vision loss or even blindness. If it’s caught early, you may be able to prevent additional vision loss.  

The most common type of glaucoma is primary open-angle glaucoma. It has no signs or symptoms except gradual vision loss. For that reason, it’s important that you go to yearly comprehensive eye exams so your ophthalmologist, or eye specialist, can monitor any changes in your vision.

Acute-angle closure glaucoma, which is also known as narrow-angle glaucoma, is a medical emergency. See your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • severe eye pain
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • redness in your eye
  • sudden vision disturbances
  • seeing colored rings around lights
  • sudden blurred vision 

The back of your eye continuously makes a clear fluid called aqueous humor. As this fluid is made, it fills the front part of your eye. Then, it leaves your eye through channels in your cornea and iris. If these channels are blocked or partially obstructed, the natural pressure in your eye, which is called the intraocular pressure (IOP), may increase. As your IOP increases, your optic nerve may become damaged. As damage to your nerve progresses, you may begin losing sight in your eye.

What causes the pressure in your eye to increase isn’t always known. However, doctors believe one or more of these factors may play a role:

  • dilating eye drops
  • blocked or restricted drainage in your eye
  • medications, such as corticosteroids
  • poor or reduced blood flow to your optic nerve
  • high or elevated blood pressure


Five major types of glaucoma exist. These are:

Open-Angle (Chronic) Glaucoma

Open-angle, or chronic, glaucoma has no signs or symptoms except gradual vision loss. This loss may be so slow that your vision can suffer irreparable damage before any other signs become apparent. According the National Eye Institute (NEI)Trusted Source, this is the most common type of glaucoma.

Angle-Closure (Acute) Glaucoma

If the flow of your aqueous humor fluid is suddenly blocked, the rapid buildup of fluid may cause a severe, quick, and painful increase in pressure. Angle-closure glaucoma is an emergency situation. You should call your doctor immediately if you begin experiencing symptoms, such as severe pain, nausea, and blurred vision.

Congenital Glaucoma

Children born with congenital glaucoma have a defect in the angle of their eye, which slows or prevents normal fluid drainage. Congenital glaucoma usually presents with symptoms, such as cloudy eyes, excessive tearing, or sensitivity to light. Congenital glaucoma can run in families.

Secondary Glaucoma

Secondary glaucoma is often a side effect of injury or another eye condition, such as cataracts or eye tumors. Medicines, such as corticosteroids, may also cause this type of glaucoma. Rarely, eye surgery can cause secondary glaucoma.

Normal Tension Glaucoma

In some cases, people without increased eye pressure develop damage to their optic nerve. The cause of this isn’t known. However, extreme sensitivity or a lack of blood flow to your optic nerve may be a factor in this type of glaucoma.

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